Thursday, 2 February 2012

Working in Montréal today --Why Jim Carey is wrong

Good morning folks,

I will be working in Montréal today, but will be leaving the office a bit early as I opted for the 5:30 flight back 'stead of the 6.

I was recent asked for my opinion on the apposing view points on childhood vaccinations.  Attached are my analysis and conclusions.  I am aware that the anti-vaccine movement is one that feels especially passionate in their convictions and that they are acting out of love for their children, and my conclusions and assertions are not meant to insult them, but to point out that their position is based on non-science.

Similarly, I have a tremendous amount respect for their spokespersons Jim Carey, and Jenny McCarthy; Jim is a really funny guy and if I needed advice on prat fall timing, he's where I would go, and Jenny..  sorry it's unclear what she does, bikini model? but I am sure that she does it real well. However, when I want scientific and medical advice then I want it from scientists and doctors not celebs du jour.

I have found that the anti side relies on anecdotal accounts and sharpshooter examples.  By this I mean that specific cases will be cited where an otherwise healthy 2 year old was given a vaccine and then developed Autism.   Post hoc ergo prompter hoc - after this, therefore because of this.  The conclusion is based simply on the order of events rather than establishing the specific causality.  Other examples on the anti side will zero in on specific cases that resulted in severe side effects, these cases actually prove the statistical likelihood that some recipients will experience them, it does not prove that the vaccines are unsafe.

The anti side's trumpet blower was of course Andrew Wakefield who has been found to be a fraudulent researcher that planned to line his pockets with the rewards of suing the vaccine manufacturers and the state.  His research showing a temporal relationship between vaccines and Autism was discredited and found to be fake.

The anti side has not shown ANY causality between vaccines and the diseases that they claim they cause, not for Autism, not for Alzheimer's, not for AIDS ( yeah, I found that one really bizarre).

Without much further ado, hear is that layman's analysis.  I apologize that my format deviates from the standard, intro - background - hypothesis - research - results - conclusion, and instead much of my concluding statements are intra-body, with the data following.  The reason is one of readability, and simply that at 13 pages or so, I figure that it would be an easier read.

Also bear in mind that I am not a medical researcher nor practitioner nor immunologist although I have stayed at a Holiday Inn Express on more than one occasion.

In the end it is the parents of children that must decide how to care for their children, and they are saddled with the responsibility to weigh the risks and benefits of vaccines, foods, education, babysitters, pets, friends, and know-it-all relatives.  I implore all parents to seek informed opinion on these and other matters and not be swayed by the conspiracy conscious anti-science movement.

I welcome meaningful critique and queries.

As usual, this and others are available at http://pulp.puckett.ca


An Analysis of Childhood Vaccinations
2012 02 01 Daniel Puckett

At the request of a family member I have performed some research on the childhood vaccination process, specifically the benefits and risks.  The research that I performed was limited to online, periodical, and printed text research and did not include participation in any actual laboratory or clinical experiments or research.  Readers are therefore encouraged to perform their own evaluations of any assertions or conclusions that I penned and to be aware that I am not a virologist, biologist nor immunologist.

There are perhaps three reasons to participate in the childhood vaccination process.  I give equal weight to two of them.  One is to prevent the contraction of specific diseases or infections or at a minimum to mitigate their effects and symptoms; the other is to protect society in general from outbreaks of disease or infection.  Another reason to participate is that it is a requirement of Provincial regulation to immunize children and the school system may deny or attempt to deny entry of non-immunized children.  However, I will not devote much ink to regulation since if there were no merit in reasons one and two, the legislating of immunization would be meaningless.

On the counter side to participating in the childhood vaccination process is the suspicion of a lack of effectiveness in actual deployment of vaccines or even the efficacy in the clinical trials.  Moreover there have been many claims that the vaccines that we rely on to keep our children healthy actually cause Alzheimer's disease, Autism, Influenza, Sudden Infant Death, Attention Deficit Disorders, or the  very diseases and infections the vaccines purport to prevent.  The anti-vaccine arguments are also very critical of the general safety of the vaccines and their inclusion of untested or poisonous compounds, heavy metals, and a general lack of long term testing.  And I suppose finally, the claims of conspiracy that the Gov't and the Military Industrial Complex is systematically infecting the population with tailor made infections and disease.

I certainly approached this exercise with an open mind, although I did have an existing belief that the vaccines in use have a net benefit to the individual as well as society.  As a result of my reading and research I have a stronger belief that participation in the vaccine program should be used in all but exceptional cases.

My overwhelming recommendation is to participate in the vaccine program, both for infants and young adults, and then continuing as an adult.  Periodic boosters are required for Tetanus, and specific vaccines are available for risk groups and for those that travel.

Prevention of contraction of specific diseases or infections

The effectiveness of vaccinations has been found conclusively to prevent disease and infection.  In the following section that itemizes the specific vaccinations currently in use I have identified Canadian incidence rates prior to and post vaccine adoption.  These measurements identify that vaccines do work and are effective in practice.

In the cases where an immunized individual contracts the targeted disease or infection, and where an infection does occur, the symptoms and effects are greatly minimized.

There have been non-scientific arguments put forward by the anti-vaccine movement that there is no need for vaccines anymore, accompanied with anecdotal claims that Tetanus or Polio or Diphtheria has been eradicated.  While it is true that Smallpox have been eradicated (and we no longer immunize against it), the diseases and infections that we currently vaccinate against are still very much a risk.  The reason why we rarely hear of someone contracting Tetanus or the other risk diseases and infections is because we vaccinate against them.

It is noted there are factors that reduce the effectiveness of vaccines.  It has been determined that children with high exposures to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have a reduced immunity compared to the general population of children vaccinated.   Also noted is that qualified personnel employing approved methods must perform the handling and storage of vaccines to ensure expected vaccine performance.

Protection of Society in General

In addition to the prevention of disease of the vaccinated individual is the prevention of disease in the general population.  There are those individuals that cannot be vaccinated for reasons of deteriorated health, allergic reactions to vaccines, or other specific conditions.  These individuals rely on ‘tribe or herd immunity’ to reduce the likelihood of exposure.  In the specific vaccine section below, several infections are identified that are particularly dangerous to pregnant women, by vaccinating our children and therefore most persons the likelihood of an expectant mother being exposed to a contagious infected person is greatly reduced.

Further, a failure to vaccinate children will place them in peril as they will exposed to many other children in schools, daycares and other social situations, and some of these other children that may carry pathogens that cause disease and infection even when that other child is themself immune.   Similarly the vaccine opted out but otherwise healthy child can contract disease or infection that their immune system can cope with, but could cause infection of disease to be transferred to children with compromised immune systems that for which ever reason cannot be immunized.

I will make the moral argument that refusal of vaccinations on the basis of risk may in fact be unethical and immoral.  If one concedes that there is some form of risk to the child by participating in immunization; and we agree with the enormous benefit that immunization provides to the population; then participating in that benefit without sharing the risk places the value of the non-immunized child greater in some measure to the population on the whole and if such a measure is made consciously then it is certainly unethical.  Such behavior would not be sustainable on a wide spread scale and would result in increased levels of disease and infection and return us to the pre-vaccine rates of incidence.  Such would therefore not result in the greatest degree of health and happiness and therefore not the moral choice.

Mandatory Immunizations

Just to get it out of the way, contrary to public health communications there is no law in Canada that can compel you to vaccinate your children.  Three provinces, Ontario, Manitoba and New Brunswick have legislation to deny entry into the school system of non-immunized children.  However all three have specific provisions that allow the non-participation for reasons of conscience or religious belief if the parent believes that the vaccination may bring harm to the child.  Unfortunately those provisions do not require any proof of harm nor provide any mechanism to gauge the competency of the parent(s) to make that determination.

However, if a parent or child is known to pose a specific heath risk to the public, such as having contracted Tuberculosis or known to be a carrier of a pathogen, the Public Health Unit can have that parent or child isolated and treated, by force if necessary.

Deliberate Contamination

I will now also attempt to dispose of the conspiracy theories of deliberate infection of the population.  Such claims are easily made without any evidence of truth or method, therefore they are extremely hard to disprove.  I cannot personally oversee the manufacture of the vaccines that I, my children or grandchildren may be injected with, so if a malicious Gov't or Industry wished to deliberately infect us with something, then yes they could include some pathogen within the same vial as a vaccine.  Of course if we chose to not use that particular vaccine that same Gov't or Industry could resort to other measures to result in an infection.  Available are cereal boxes, laundry detergent, toothpaste, ketchup or a few thousand other household products.

Does the U.S. and Canadian Gov't engage in chemical and biological weapon research? Yes.  More so the US Gov't, but the Canadian Gov't has historically allowed our southern neighbors access to our facilities, lands and military personnel.  Both military and medical researchers have access to, and keep samples of Small Pox, Ebola, Anthrax, Tularemia for both offensive and defensive purposes, and while it is in theory possible that some agency may decide that general population testing is desirable, it is not logical to use injectable forms.  For a weapon to be effective a mass delivery system is required, lining up your enemy for an injection is not especially practical.

I am sure that there are several conspiracy sensitive individuals that will read this and counter with theories of deliberate sterilization to curb the population growth, or even methods of 'culling the herd'.  However, the plastics that we use in our packaging are very effective at resulting in a reduced birth rate, and again, the food and household products that we consume are certainly a more economical and targetable delivery mechanism.

I do not believe that the conspiracy theory warrants additional ink in this research.

Accidental or Negligent Contamination

The vaccines that are presently available do include many chemical compounds and metals that are in themselves toxic.  This information is readily available and widely known.

These compounds are present as they provide specific qualities to the vaccine of the manufacturing process.  They are not present by way of negligent action.  The real question and that that I focused on, is do the presence of the compounds present a higher or lower risk of effect than the disease or infection that the vaccine is designed to prevent?

An additional question to be asked is Who, or what agency is responsible for ensuring the quality of the vaccines and testing for compliance?

In the following sections I will include a list of the contaminants that are included in each of the current vaccines and the risk presented to the recipient.

I will note that many of the contaminants are presented in extremely low levels and as such present no additional risk to the child.  An example is Mercury, although current vaccines have been reformulated to not contain Mercury, prior versions that had did so at levels present are less than the level contained in a single serving of consumer quality salmon.  As such, although Mercury is known to cause damage to the brain, kidneys and lungs and can result in symptoms that include vision, speech and hearing problems, if there is no attempt made to eliminate all sources of Mercury from the child's diet, theamount that had been present in the vaccine presented no addition risk.

Vaccine Safety

The Gov’t of Canada and the U.S. Center for Disease Control assert that the vaccines in use in Canada and the U.S. are safe to use without any long term effects.  In Canada all production, manufacturers, and methods are actively monitored by the Biologics and Genetic Therapeutics Directorate of Health Canada.

In the U.S. the responsibility, quality and safety is the responsibility of the Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Disease Control.

As a result of claims the Mercury, specifically the Mecuric compound found in Thimerosal, caused Autism in children, vaccines in Canada and the U.S. have been reformulated to rely on non-Mercury based anti-bacterials.  While there has been no causal link found between Mercury and Autism, the vaccines were reformulated in an effort to maintain public confidence in vaccines.  It is important to note that prior to the removal of Thimerosal, the diagnosed rates of children was rising on both sides of the boarder and subsequent to the removal, the rates of Autism diagnoses have actually increased, dispelling any believed link.

Further, on the subject of Autism, according to The Journal of The American Academy of Pediatrics, Twin and family studies indicate a strong genetic component of Autism incidence and that results from genetic studies suggest that autism may result from multiple genes acting in combination. Current thinking is that exposure to environmental factors at critical periods of development in genetically susceptible individuals may contribute to occurrence and that ahigher susceptibility to infection (ear, nose, upper respiratory) in the first 30 days of life exists.  Or more clearly, there seems to be a causal/contributing link between children that are prone to upper respiratory infections in the first 30 days of life and the development of Autism and not the use of vaccines.

Vaccine Side effects

Vaccines are specifically designed to cause a reaction by the recipient’s immune system, as a side effect to this intended response; the recipient will experience some discomfort and symptoms with each vaccine.

Generally there will be redness and soreness around the injection site.  Slight fever, fussy sleeping, which can last a few days usually with an onset in 12 - 24 hours.

If there is any breathing problems or swelling, blotchy skin or around mouth then anallergic reaction may be occurring and the recipient should be provided medical attention.  If a severe reaction is encountered, then a specially formulated vaccine may be required.  It is also possible that a child cannot be vaccinated until older or not at all and will need to rely on ‘tribe or herd immunity’.

In response to the anti-vaccine movements claim that vaccines overload a child’s immune system and cause the infections they are designed to prevent, according to Health Canada and the CDC there is no overload on the immune system by giving multi vaccines, the vaccine does not contain active/live viruses, they contain a stripped down version that is inert, but cause your immune system to gear up for it and develop antibodies.

Moreover, the research does not support this assertion.  Disease incidence among immunized individuals is very low, and while there have been specific localized outbreaks of disease; such can be attributed to non-standard factors.  The vaccine exchange (http://vaccinexchange.org -- an anti-vaccine web site) cites the outbreak of Polio in Pakistan among vaccinated children as a reason to not vaccinate, but the CDC had already concluded that the vaccines were rendered useless by incorrect unrefrigerated storage.

Infant Schedule

There are currently twelve or so specific bacterial or viral infections that are included in the two month through five-year-old vaccination program.  In the following I will identify the vaccination schedule for children, including repeated vaccinations; the symptoms and effects of the infection if contracted; the side effects of the vaccine; and some anecdotal accounts of actual infections and vaccine use.

Schedule for a typical Canadian infant

2 months
Men-C           Meningococal disease
Pneu-C-13    Pneumoccal disease
DTap-HB-IPV-Hib
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping cough, Polio, Hib, Hepatitus B

4 month
Pneu-C-13    Pneumoccal disease
DTap-HB-IPV-Hib
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping cough, Polio, Hib, Hepatitus B

6 month
DTap-HB-IPV-Hib
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping cough, Polio, Hib, Hepatitus B

12 months
MMR              Measles, Mumps, Rubella
Varicella         Chicken Pox
Men-C            Meningococal disease
Pneu-C-13     Pneumoccal disease

18 month
MMR              Measles, Mumps, Rubella
DTap-HB-IPV-Hib
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping cough, Polio, Hib, Hepatitus B

5 years
Varicella         Chicken Pox
DTap-IPV      Diphtheria, Tetanus, Whooping cough, Polio


Meningococal diseases
Can cause Meningitis.

20% of persons carry the germs (in their nose) that cause Meningitis, the disease itself develops very rapidly and results in swelling of the brain, spinal cord and can cause blood infections as well.  This is a very deadly disease that without immediate treatment is often fatal.  When I was in high school we had a wave of it pass through the Southern Alberta school system, I think there were 4 or 5 deaths.

With the new trend of skipping immunization, young teenagers that have not been immunized will need to be very careful at paying attention to systems such as stiff and sore neck, fever.  Their immunized friends can easily pass the germ on to them.

I didn’t read of any reports of severe reaction to the vaccine.  See above for general side effects.

Pneumococcal diseases
Can cause infections of Meningitus(Brain/Spine), Bacteremia(Blood), Pneumonia(Lungs),Otitis(Ears).

This set of germs are carried by almost everyone, and it causes opportunistic infections.  By this I mean that usually the person is sick already and then in the weakened state comes down with pneumonia, like what happened to me in 1990.  I had a cold, kept working and then developed Pneumonia that nearly killed me, spend a week in the hospital with an IV of antibiotics.

Children at daycares are at the highest risk since they will be introduced to many strains of colds, flu, etc. and may have their immune system regularly challenged.

Unfortunately the vaccine can cause vomiting and diarrhea and even a rash in addition to the soreness and trouble sleeping.  Should be all clear in 2 days.

Diphtheria
(protected in combo w/Tetanus, Whooping cough, Polio + Early with Hib, Hepatitus B)
A nose and throat infection.  I don't know anyone that ever contracted this but seem to have memory of this being particularly dangerous.  It is reported as being 10% fatal even with treatment as it moves from the upper respiratory to vital organs.

Canadian pre-vaccine peak annual case counts 1925 through 1929 was 9,010, since vaccinations peak cases was 1 annual.

Tetanus
Goddamn deadly.  The Tetanus pathogen are everywhere and lasts about forever in soil.  If you work in soil or with animals then you should regularly get a booster, I think the booster lasts 10 years now, but if you get a dirty cut or animal bite after 5 years you should go get a new booster.  More often then not, animal mouths and nasal passages are found to carry tetanus meaning that an animal bite is very likely to pass on tetanus into the wound.

A Tetanus infection travels very quickly to the muscles and prevent them from relaxing, interfering with breathing, speaking, etc.  If you somehow manage to live through it you will likely have trouble remembering things, speaking and suffer from continued malaise.

This is a really safe vaccine compared to the possibility of infection, usual side effects above.  Prior formulations included horse urine, which could cause rashes for some individuals, but current formulations do not, and result in very rare reactions.

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
This is a childhood disease that makes a child cough so hard that can't even take a breath, very painful and can cause death or brain damage.  There was recently an outbreak in Washington state attributed to the lack of vaccinations.

The initial symptoms start out like a cold, nose, eyes and then move on to fever sneezing and severe cough and lasts about a month.  Vomiting, convulsions

A slight fever can show up with soreness and trouble sleeping after the vaccine.  Should be all clear in 2 days.

Canadian pre-vaccine peak annual case counts 1938 through 1942 was 19,878, since vaccinations peak cases was 4,751 annual largely attributed to lack of immunization.

Polio
Viral infection that attacks muscles, and has flu like symptoms.  Can cause death but more likely to cause paralysis and nervous system disorders.  I have a friend in Lethbridge that had Polio when he was a kid, has a bum left leg, can walk but with a shuffle.  Can't shift up on a dirt bike, so he made a lever on his handlebars to shift up.  Later switched to an automatic Husqy.

Polio has all been eradicated in Canada but if we stop the immunization process that was started in 1955 we could have it come back, just takes a few cases coming in from Asia.  Eventually could be eradicated world wide like Smallpox.  This is one of those 'responsibility to all' vaccines.

In Canada in 1959 there were 1887 cases, in 1978 there were 11 cases in Alberta and BC among non-immunized religious groups.

HIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
Sounds like the Flu, but isn't.  It is a bacterium that can cause Meningitus.  This was the cause of the outbreak of Meningitus when I was a teenager.  The Vaccine came out in 1988. Same info as Meningococal diseases vaccine.

Hepatitus B
One of the Hep liver diseases.  Anyone that gets tattoos, manicures, pedicures should be immunized as it is easily passed through unclean tools.  If you travel it can be provided as part of the travel vaccine pack.

I initially questioned this immunization for infants.  The likely hood of a child contracting this is should be incredibly remote, unless he starts hanging out in bars and picking up crack whores or starts sharing his toothbrush with the IV drug user next door.  It could be deferred till 5 years or even provided at the same time as the teenage booster.

I then re-thought this.  Children will likely spend time in day-care and will be exposed to many other children, and care givers could use the same utensils with an infected child.  This could be even a pair of nail clippers.

It is included now in one vaccine package and as such there should be no increased risk in getting it.

Measles
Viral infection that attacks skin, upper respiratory.  This spreads through children real fast.  If a child is not vaccinated, he almost certainly will contract it.

Starts with a fever, red eyes, and then a horrible rash, it can also rarely cause swelling of the brain.  It is a greater danger to pregnant women, can cause miscarriages and stillbirth.  The rash is so bad that children need gloves taped on else they can rip into their skin with their nails when they scratch.  Much like poison ivy all over.

If we abandon this vaccine we will see a resurgence of Measles and the high risks to pregnant women.

This is part of the MMR Vaccine that all the scares about Autism came from, but there is no actual scientific link that can be found except one of timing.  Children develop Autism, and children get vaccines.

In rare cases there can be additional side effects including joint pain that can last up to 3 months.  My children had some site soreness for a day.

Canadian pre-vaccine peak annual case counts 1950 through 1954 was 61,370, since vaccinations peak cases was 199 annual.

Mumps
A viral infection that causes swollen glands, fever, headaches, earaches, etc.  Can result in deafness and in rare cases can cause Meningitus, and in some cases Mumps can render males impotent.

I had Mumps when I was maybe 8?  Not sure exactly when but that was prior to a vaccine for it.  The highest risk of impotence is for older males to contract the Mumps.

Part of the MMR vaccine, same risks as Measles, no connection to Autism.

Canadian pre-vaccine peak annual case counts 1950 through 1954 was 43,671, since vaccinations peak cases was 202 annual.

Rubella (German Measles)
Another virus infection with similar symptoms and effects as Measles, just less serious, but as or even more serios risk to pregnant women.  Miscarriages, stillborns, and if the baby survives could be born deaf, blind, or brain damaged.

Another public health vaccine, best for all if all are vaccinated.

Part of the MMR vaccine, same risks as Measles, no connection to Autism.

Canadian pre-vaccine peak annual case counts 1950 through 1954 was 37,917, since vaccinations peak cases was 29 annual.

Varicella (Chickenpox)
Virus infection that starts with a fever and cold like symptoms then develops into a full body rash that turns into fluid filled blisters that concentrate on the face and chest.  Painful and can result in opportunistic flesh eating diseases and secondary infections.  The vaccine may not prevent a child from contacting Chickenpox but the effects will be mild.  If a Chickpox infection occurs, the patient should avoid ASPIRIN OR IBUPROFEN, can cause Reye Syndrome which can result in brain damage.

For pregnant women their babies can be born with brain damage, pneumonia or even stillborn.  So the vaccine is a public heath obligation.

Same risks as Measles, no connection to Autism.  But a small number of children may develop a rash that looks like chickenpox but very mild.

Vaccine Ingredients

In addition to the inactive bacterium or viral matter, vaccines include various chemicals and compounds that are either associated with the manufacturing process, preservatives or present to elicit immune system responses.  It is important to note that the formulation and compounds of vaccines are not secret, but rather the information is freely available.

Men-C
Formaldehyde
Phosphate buffers
Lactose

Pneu-C-13
Aluminum Phosphate
Amino Acid
Soy Peptone
Yeast Extract

DTap-HB-IPV-Hib
Aluminum Hydroxide, Aluminum Phosphate
Formaldehyde or Formalin
Bovine Protein
Glutaraldhyde
Monkey Kidney Tissue
Neomycin
Polymyxin B
2-Phenoxyethanol
Polysorbate 80
Yeast Protein
Lactalbumin Hydrolysate

MMR
Amino Acid
Bovine Albumin or Serum
Chick Embryo Fibroblasts
Human Serum Albumin
Gelatin
Glutamate
Neomycin
Phosphate Buffers
Sorbitol
Sucrose
Vitamins

Varicella
Bovine Albumin or Serum
Ethylenediamine-Tetraacetic Acid Sodium (EDTA)
Gelatin
Monosodium L-Glutamate
MRC-5 DNA and Cellular Protein
Neomycin
Potassium Chloride
Potassium Phosphate Monobasic
Sodium Phosphate Monobasic
Sucrose


A/
Aluminum Phosphate – Aluminum salts are used in vaccines to enhance the natural immune system response, resulting in higher anti-body production.  Now that the Mercury can no longer be the Autism link, many have turned to the Aluminum – Autism link.  While Aluminum is associated with neurological disorders, the FDA maintains that Aluminum Salts such as Aluminum Phosphate and Aluminum Hydroxide have 60 years of clinical safety trials and that the most common exposure sources are food and water.

Amino Acid – Used in conjunction with sugars to stabilize vaccines.  Sugars, amino acids and proteins are not unique to vaccines and are encountered in everyday life.

B/
Bovine Albumin or Serum / Bovine Protein – Used as a source of nutrition for cells during the virus growth process.  The source for the blood are cattle, raised for human consumption, and is subjected to centrifuge separation, filtration and tested for cell growth performance testing, microbial sterility testing, screening for mycoplasma and virus, endotoxins.  I cannot find any report of any danger, or safety for that matter ondirectly injecting small amounts of protein of Bovine or Egg variety into the bloodstream.  The anti-viral movement states that no one knows.  I suggest that someone knows and it is likely a non-event. Proteins, with the exception ofPrions are generally considered safe but can result is specific allergic reactions.

C/
Chick Embryo Fibroblasts - A type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals.  These cells are provided to allow the viruses the needed cells in which to replicate.

E/
Ethylenediamine-Tetraacetic Acid Sodium (EDTA) – A colourless, water-soluble solid acid.  It is used to bind metal ions and render them non-reactive.  It is used in Chelation therapy to rid the body of lead and mercury.  Perhaps the manufacturers add this to reduce the risks associated with any mercury that may be present?  Perhaps this will be phased out since Mercury has been phased out of vaccine formulations.

F/
Formaldehyde - used to de-activate bacterium and viral samples in vaccines as well to eradicate any unwanted bacterial contamination.  It is toxic and must be handled with care.  The amounts present in vaccines are severely minute and much less than the amount present in wart removal applications and urinary tract infection treatments.

G/
Glutaraldhyde – Disinfectant that is also an eye, nose and lung irritant.  Also present in wart removers.

Gelatin – Very harmless

Glutamate / Monosodium L-Glutamate – the sodium salt of Glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids, harmless,

H/
Human Serum Albumin – The most abundant protein in human blood plasma.  Human albumin is often used to replace lost fluid and help restore blood volume in trauma, burns and surgery patients. The amount present in vaccines is extremely minute compared to therapeutic doses.

L/
Lactose - is a natural source of carbohydrate, most often obtained from liquid whey. It is the primary ingredient in skim milk powder, harmless.

Lactalbumin Hydrolysate – Albumin from milk.  Harmless

M/
Monkey Kidney Tissue – cells used to culture the virus prior to deactivation.  Viruses require host cells in which to replicate and the Monkey tissue provides for the rapid growth required to produce the Polio vaccine.  I have some misgivings about using monkey tissue in the production, but this has been the case since Salk developed the Polio vaccine although he originallyused spinal tissue.  CDC says that it is safe and it is present in minute amounts and the batches are tested for known pathogens

MRC-5 DNA and Cellular Protein – The anti-vaccine movement is quite critical of human (and non-human) sources of DNA, protein and cellular material.  However, in order to culture the Varicella virus (and then render the virus inactive) laboratories need suitable base samples.  The MRC-5 line of cellular material was developed in 1966 from lung tissue taken from an aborted healthy fetus from a healthy 27 year old Caucasian woman.  No known pathogens are present in this cell line and it is used extensively ineducational and for profit research.  You may purchase this cellular line for your own for profit research from Coriell Institute for $180 or if for academic research, $100.

N/
Neomycin, Polymyxin B – antibiotic, used in many applications including Neosporin.

P/
Phosphate buffers – Harmless pH buffering

2-Phenoxyethanol – Preservative containing phenon.  Should be safe in minute amounts for injection.  Anti-vaccine movement is critical in the inclusion but the reasons seem anecdotal and not based in any kind of science.

Polysorbate 80 – Water soluble emulsifier used extensively in food, medical, industrial, laboratory applications.  Generally considered a very safe compound, rats fed a 5% diet of Polysorbate 80 for 12 weeks showed no side effects.

Potassium Chloride – Much like Table salt, except healthier for you heart, harmless.

Potassium Phosphate Monobasic / Sodium Phosphate Monobasic – Salts, harmless.

S/
Soy Peptone – Culture media.  The only danger is from inhaling the dust as it may irritate mucus membranes.  Harmless.

Sorbitol – A simple sugar-alcohol that the human body metabolizes slowly.  Can aggravate existing gastro-intestinal conditions when ingested.

Sucrose – Table sugar.

V/
Vitamins – Assorted organic compounds required as vital nutrients by organisms, such as humans.   Usually added to certain vaccines, A, D, C.

Y/
Yeast Protein / Extracts – Source of protein and B-complex vitamins.


Additional reading

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/appendices/B/excipient-table-1.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/appendices/B/excipient-table-2.pdf
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/e61.full
http://vaccineriskawareness.com/
http://vaccineriskawareness.com/Vaccines-And-How-They-Are-Made
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/index-eng.php
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001592.htm
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/e61.full
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001565.htm
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health/new-health/paul-taylor/chemicals-undermine-childhood-vaccines-study-finds/article2315994/
http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/publications/vaccine/pneumococcal_cv.aspx
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/p01-02-eng.php
http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/SafetyAvailability/VaccineSafety/ucm187810.htm
http://www.rense.com/general59/vvac.htm
http://vaccinexchange.org/2011/07/14/high-incidence-of-polio-among-vaccinated-pakistani-children/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetal_bovine_serum
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